Administering Aqueous Pepper Extract Influence the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Selected Haematological and Serum Characteristics of Three Breeds of Broiler Chickens


  • Acheneje EGENA Department of Animal Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
  • Olushola Alabi Department of Animal Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
  • Ocheme Ocheme Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
  • Akeem Sikiru Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Zuru, Nigeria.
  • Mathew Adegbola Department of Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
  • Ochoche Oche Department of Animal Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Genetic differences, Antibiotic growth promoters, Nutrient digestibility, Feed additives, Phytogenic


The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of giving an aqueous extract of pepper on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and selected haematological and serum characteristics of three breeds of broiler chickens. With this in mind, 216-day-old broiler chickens of the Arbor acre, Ross308, and Cobb500 were used for the research. The birds were administered four levels of aqueous pepper extract: 0, 3, 3.5, and 4mL, respectively. Parameters measured were body weight changes, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, degree of apparent nutrient digestibility, and some haematological and serum characteristics. The results showed that, Cobb500 birds had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion ratio, final body weight and body weight gain than Arbor acre and oss308 birds. Also, birds on the aqueous pepper extract had better (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio, and body weight changes than those in the control (antibiotic). Final body weight (2784.93 g), body weight gain (2748.90 g), and total feed intake (4902.58 g) were observed to be better (p<0.05) in Cobb500 birds compared to the other birds at 0-56 d. No level of administration effect (p>0.05) was observed at 0-56 d. However, breed x level interaction led to better body weight changes and total feed intake. Significant (p<0.05; 0.01) effect of breed was observed in the apparent nutrient digestibility of the birds. Packed cell volume, white blood cell count, eosinophil and blood cholesterol levels were affected (p<0.05) by the breed of the birds while white blood cell count, eosinophil and blood triglyceride of the birds were also affected (p<0.05) by the level of pepper extract administered. Conclusively, the aqueous pepper extract had positive impact on the performance of the birds used in the study, mediated by the breed, and level of administration of the pepper extract


Abdulrasheed I. 2021. Growth performance of broilers chicken administered different levels of aqueous extract of hot red pepper. BTech project. Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

Addo KK. Mensah GI. Aning KG. Nartey N. Nipah GK. Bonsu C. Akyeh ML. Smits HL. 2011. Microbiological quality and antibiotic residues in informally marketed raw cow milk within the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 16, 227-232.

Adegoke AV. Abimbola MA. Sanwo KA. Egbeyale LT. Abiona JA. Oso AO. Iposu SO. 2018. Performance and blood biochemistry profile of broiler fed dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder and cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder as antioxidants. Veterinary and Animal Science, 6, 95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.vas.2018.07.005. eCollection

Afolabi KD. Ndelekwute EK. Alabi OM. Olajide R. 2017. Hot red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) meal enhanced the immunity, performance and economy of broilers fed in phases. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 7(8), 1-7.

Alabi OJ. Shiawoya EL. Ayanwale BA. Mbajiorgu CA. Ng’ambi JW. Egena SSA. 2012. Effects of dried bakers’s yeast inclusion in rice husk-based diets on performance and egg quality parameters of laying hens. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 46(1), 56-60.

Al-Kassie GAM. Al-Nasrawi MAM. Ajeena SJ. 2011. The effects of using hot red pepper as a diet supplement on some performance traits in broiler. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10, 842-845.

Al-Kassie GAM. Ghassan Y. Butris SJA. Ajeena J. 2012. The potency of feed supplemented mixture of hot red pepper and black pepper on the performance and some haematological blood traits in broiler diet. International Journal of Advanced Biological Research, 2, 53-57.

Aslam F. Khan A. Khan MZ. Sharaf S. Gul ST. Saleemi MK. 2010. Toxico-pathological changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: their attenuation with vitamin E and selenium. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 62(4), 441-450. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2009.06.004. Epub

Boamah VE. Agyare C. Odoi H. Dalsgaard A. 2016. Antibiotic practices and factors influencing the use of antibiotics in selected poultry farms in Ghana. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2, 120. doi: 10.4172/2472-1212.1000120

Conforti F. Statti GA. Menichini F. 2007. Chemical and biological variability of hot pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum L.) in relation to maturity stage. Food Chemistry, 102, 1096-1104.

Egena SSA. Ijaiya AT. Jiya EZ. Ajisafe TJ. 2010. Haematological evaluation of broilers administered probiotics (Lactobaccilus bulgaricus). Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences, 8(1), 180-187. DOI: 10.4314/joafss.v8i1.64829

Emam M. Mehrabani-Yeganeh H. Barjesteh N, Nikbakht G. Thompson-Crispi K. Charkhkar S. Mallard B. 2014. The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence. Poultry Science, 93(1), 77-84. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03475.

Fathi M. Al-Homidan I. Al-Dokhail A. Ebeid T. Abou-Emera O. Alsagan A. 2018. Effects of dietary probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) supplementation on productive performance, immune response and egg quality characteristics in laying hens under high ambient temperature. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 17(3), 804-814.

Galib A. Mandooh A. Saba A. 2011. The effect of using hot red pepper as a diet supplement on some performance traits in broiler. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(9), 842-845.

Goetting V. Lee KA. Tell LA. 2011. Pharmacokinetics of veterinary drugs in laying hens and residues in eggs: A review of the literature. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapy, 34, 521-556.

Kishawy ATY. Al-Khalaifah HS. Nada HS. Roushdy EM. Zaglool AW. Ahmed Ismail T. Ibrahim SM. Ibrahim D. 2022. Black pepper or Radish seed oils in a new combination of essential oils modulated broiler chickens’ performance and expression of digestive enzymes, lipogenesis, immunity, and autophagy-related genes. Veterinary Sciences, 9(43) 10.3390/vetsci9020043

Kumar S. Chen C. Indugu N. Werlang GO. Shingh M. Kim WK. Thippareddi H. 2018. Effect of antibiotic withdrawal in feed on chicken gut microbial dynamics, immunity, growth performance and prevalence of food borne pathogens. Plos One, 1-23.

Landers TF. Cohen B. Wittum TE. Larson EL. 2012. A review of antibiotic use in food animals: Perspective, policy, and potential. Public Health Reports, 127, 1, 4-22.

Laxminarayan R. Duse A. Wattal C. Zaidi AKM. Wertheim HFL. Sumpradit N. Vlieghe E. Hara GL. Gould IM. Goossens H. Greko C. So AD. Bigdeli M. Tomson G. Woodhouse W. Ombaka E. Peralta AQ. Qamar FN. Mir F. Kariuki S. Bhutta ZA. Coates A. Bergstrom R. Wright GD. Brown ED. Cars O. 2013. Antibiotic resistance–The need for global solutions. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13, 1057-1098.

Lee JJ. Crosby KM. Pike LM. Yoo KS. Lescobar DI. 2005. Impact of genetic and environmental variation of development of flavornoids and carotenoids in pepper (Capsicum spp.). Scientia Horticulturae, 106, 341-352.

Liu SJ. Wang, J. He, TF. Liu HS. Piao XS. 2021. Effects of natural capsicum extract on growth performance, nutrient utilization, antioxidant status, immune function, and meat quality in broilers. Poultry Science, 100(9), 101301.

Luqman S. Rezvi SI. 2006. Protection of lipid peroxidation and carbonyl formation in proteins by capsaicin in human erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Phytotherapy Research, 20, 303-306. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1861.

Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Bender KS, Buckley FH, Stahl DA. 2014. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 14th ed. Illinois: Pearson International. p. 1006

Marshall BM. Levy SB. 2011. Food animals and antimicrobials: Impacts on human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 24, 718-733.

Mehdizadeh S. Kazerani HR. Jamshidi A. 2010. Screening of chloramphenicol residues in broiler chickens slaughtered in an industrial poultry abattoir in Mashhad, Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 2, 25-32.

Mirlohi M, Aalipour F, Jalali M. 2013. Prevalence of antibiotic residues in commercial milk and its variation by season and thermal processing methods. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering, 2, 41.

Moradi S. Mousavinia M. Galeh BA. 2016. Effect of use black and red pepper powder as feed additive on performance and some immune parameters of Cobb 500 broiler chicks. Centre for Info Bio Technology Journal of Zoology, 5(2), 45-50.

Munlang NN. Vidyarthi VK. 2019. Hot red pepper powder supplementation diet of broiler chicken - A review. Livestock Research International, 7(3), 159-167.

Nashino H. Murakosh M. Tokuda H. Satomi Y. 2009. Cancer prevention by carotenoids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 483, 165-168.

Ojimaduka CB. Taiwo D I. Shaibu AA. Abdullahi S. Egena SSA. 2020. Growth performance of broiler chickens administered varying doses of garlic (Allium sativum) and Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extracts. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 47, 4, 184– 193.

Puvaca N. Stanacev V. Glamocic D. Levic J. Peric L. Stanacev V. Milic D. 2013. Beneficial effects of phyto additives in broiler nutrition. World Poultry Science Journal, 69, 27-34.

Puvaca N. Ljubojevic D. Lukac D. Kostadinovic LJ. Stanacev V. Popovic S. Zivkov Balos M. Nikolova N. 2014. Digestibility of fat in broiler chickens influenced by dietary addition of spice herbs. Macedonian Journal of Animal Science, 4, 61-67.

Puvaca N. Ljubojevic D. Kostadinovic LJ. Levic J. Nikolova N. Miscevic B. Konyves T. Lukac D. Popovic S. 2015a. Spices and herbs in broilers nutrition: hot red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and its mode of action. World Poultry Science Journal, 71, 683-688.

Puvaca N. Kostadinovic LJ. Ljubojevic D. Lukac D. Levic J. Popovic S. Novakov N. Vidovic B. Duragic O. 2015b. Effect of garlic, black pepper and hot red pepper on productive performances and blood profile of broiler chickens. European Poultry Science, 79, 1-13. DOI: 10.1399/eps.2015.73

Shahverdi A. Kheiri F. Faghani M. Rahimian Y. Rafiee A. 2013. The effect of use of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on performance and haematological parameters of broiler chicks. European Journal of Zoological Research, 2(6), 44-48.

SPSS 2006. Statistical Package for Social Sciences. SPSS for windows. Release 2006, SPSS Inc.

Stanacev V. Glamocic D. Milosevic N. Puvaca N. Stanaev V. Plavsa N. 2011. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in fattening chick’s nutrition. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 943-948.

Van den Bogaard AE. Stobberingh EE. 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics: Links between animals and humans. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 14, 327-335.

WHO 2010. World Health Organization model list of essential medicines. Geneva.010:1-43. Retrieved from 12 th December, 2022.

WHO 2017. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics: Monitoring health for the sustainable development goals. Geneva. Retrieved from on the 12th December, 2022.

Younis MEM. Abdel-Latif MA. 2017. Influence of breed and route of hot pepper supplementation on productive performance, carcass traits and immune response of two breeds of broilers. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 52(1), 181-189. doi: 10.5455/ajvs.259573




How to Cite

EGENA, A., Alabi, O., Ocheme, O., Sikiru, A., Adegbola, M., & Oche, O. (2023). Administering Aqueous Pepper Extract Influence the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Selected Haematological and Serum Characteristics of Three Breeds of Broiler Chickens . Genetics & Biodiversity Journal, 7(2), 39–50.



Original Article