Extraction characterization and investigation of breadfruit seed oil for possible pharmaceutical application


  • Romanus CHIJIOKE OMEH Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria;
  • Jude IBEABUCHI ALI Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria;
  • Assumpta ADAOBI OMEH Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria;
  • Lydia UGORJI Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • Josephat OGBONNA4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria




extraction; polyunsaturated; chromatography; degumming; hydrolysis; pharmaceutical.


This work aimed at extracting, characterizing and evaluating breadfruit seed oil for potential pharmaceutical applications. The breadfruit oil was purified by degumming, bleaching, neutralization and enzyme hydrolysis. The oil was characterized for the yield, pH value, iodine, acid, peroxide and saponification values and fatty acid composition. Results obtained were interpreted with respect to their relevance in pharmaceutical formulations.The percentage yields of the oil from the soxhlet procedure was 23.54 % while the yield from the cold maceration extraction method was 13.69 %. The iodine, acid, peroxide and saponification values were, 17.50 ± 0.05, 3.40 ± 0.33, 7.20 ± 0.08, and 236.46 ± 0.02 respectively. Gas chromatographic- infrared studies identified five polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids. The breadfruit oil has good edible properties by virtue of its moderate acid and peroxide values. Its high iodine and low saponification values may necessitate the addition of antioxidants in pharmaceutical formulations containing breadfruit oil. The results obtained in this work suggest that breadfruit oil has good potential for pharmaceutical applications.


Abubakar, A., Ibrahim, S. & Musa, F.I. (2014). Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 8(11), 1174 – 1177.

Ajiwe, V. I. E., Okeke, C.A., & Agbo H.U. (1995). Extraction and Utilization of Breadfruit Seed Oil (Treculia africana). Bioresource Technology, 53, 183-184.

Alyas, S.A., Abdulah, A., & Idris, N.A. (2006). Oil Palm Research. (Special Issue), 99–102.

American Oil Chemists Society (1997). Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, 5th ed. AOCS Press, Champaign, 1997, pp. 68 - 72

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995). Official method for fat extraction: Method No 920.85.

Azwanida, N. N. A. (2015). Review on the Extraction Methods Use in Medicinal Plants, Principle, Strength and Limitation. Medicinal. Aromatic. Plants., 4, 196. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.100019.

Cannon, J.B. (2011). Strategies to formulate lipid based drug delivery system. American Pharmacy Review. 14(4), 1123- 1131. Available online at: www.americanpharmaceuticalreview.com

Catherine, C. (2020). How breadfruit flower extract can give you glowing skin naturally. Available at: https://altilisbeauty.com/blogs/altilis-beauty-blog/breadfruit-benefits-for Assessed on 25th March 2023.

Demian, M.J. (1990). Principles of food chemistry. Van Nostrond Reinhold International Company Limited London, 37–38. [Google Scholar]

Ekwu, F.C., & Nwagu, A. (2004). Effect of processing on the quality of cashew nut oils. Journal of Science Agriculture Food Technology and Environment. 4, 105–110

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations, (2018). Part 184—direct food substances affirmed as generally recognized as safe.

Eromosele, I..C., Eromosele, C.O., Innazo, P., & Njerim, P. (1997). Studies on some seeds and seed oils. Bioresource Technology. 64:245–247. doi: 10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00163-6. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Fallah, A.A., Sarmast, E., Jafari, T & Khaneghah, A.M. (2022) Vegetable oil-based nanoemulsions for the preservation of muscle foods: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2057415

Gurram, A. K., Deshpande, P. B., Kar, S. S., Nayak, U. Y., Udupa, N., & Reddy, N. S. (2015). Role of Components in the Formulation of Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 77(3), 249-257

Iqbal, M. P. (2014). Trans fatty acids – a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 30(1), 194-197. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.301.4525

Jahani, M., Alizadeh, M., Pirozifard, M., & Qudsevali, A. (2008). Optimization of enzymatic degumming process for rice bran oil using response surface methodology. Food Science and Technology. 41(10), 1892 – 1898.

Kalepu, S., Manthina, M & Padavala, V. (2013). Oral lipid-based drug delivery systems – an overview. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 3(6), 361–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2013.10.001

Kardash, E., & Turyan, Y.I. (2005). Acid value determination in vegetable oils by indirect titration in aqueous-alcohol media; Croatica Chemica Acta, 78(1), 99-103.

Kyari, M.Z. (2008). Extraction and characterization of seed oils. International Agrophysics, 22, 139 – 142.

Liniwaty, N., Arianto, A. & Nasution, K.R.A. (2016). Formulation and Anti-Aging Effect of Cream Containing Breadfruit. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 9 (12), 524-530.

Manzoor, M., Anwar, F., Izbal, T. & Bhanger, M.I. (2007). Physico-chemical Characterization of Moringa concanensis Seeds and Seed Oil, Journal of American Oil Chemists Society. 81, 413-419.

Mounts, T. I. (1978). Processing of Soybean oil for food grade Journal of American Oil Chemists Society. 55, 765.

Nwabueze, O. & Nwofor, C. (2014). Extractive performance of solvents on the indices of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed oil. African Journal of Food Science. Research. 2(6), 099-104.

Obite, N. C., Ezeiruaku, H., & Onyishi, V.I. (2000). Preliminary Studies on Two Vegetable Oil Based Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) for the Delivery of Metronidazole, A Poorly Water Soluble Drug, Journal of Applied Sciences 8(10), 1950-1955

Obite, N., Ofokansi, K.C., Nzekwe, I.T., Esimone, C.O., & Okoye, I. (2011). Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems based on melon oil and its admixture with a Homolipid from Bos indicus for the Delivery of Indomethacin. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 10(3), 299- 307

Ojimelukwe, P.C & Ugwuona, F.U. (2021). The traditional and medicinal uses

of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne): an underutilized ethnic food of the Ibo tribe of South East, Nigeria. J. Ethn. Food (2021) 8:21


Orsavova, J., Misurcova, L., Ambrozova, J.V., Vicha, R., & Mlcek, J. (2015). Fatty acids composition of vegetable oils and its contribution to dietary energy intake and ependence of cardiovascular mortality on dietary intake of fatty acids, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16, 12871-12890. doi:10.3390/ijms160612871

Pandurangan, M.K., Murugesan, S., & Gajivaradhan, P. (2014). Physicochemical properties of groundnut oil and their blends with other vegetable oils. Journal of Chemistry and Pharmacy Research. 6, 60–66. [Google Scholar]

Prajapati, S.T,, Joshi, H.A., & Patel, C.N. (2011). Preparation and Characterisation of Self-Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Olmesartan Medoxomil for Bioavailability Improvement. Journal of Pharmaceutics, 10, 1 – 9.

Pritchard, J.I.R. (1991). Analysis and properties of oilseeds, in: Analysis of oil seeds, fats and fatty foods, Elsever Press, 1991, pp. 80–98..

Qin, X. & Zhong, J. (2016). A Review of Extraction Techniques for Avocado Oil. Journal of Oleo Sciences. 65(11) 881-888.

Rowe, R. C., Sheskey, P. J., & Owen, S. C. (2006). Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, The Pharmaceutical Press, London 2006., pp. 624 - 626.

Rueda, A., Seiquer, I., Olalla, M., Giménez, R., Lara, L., & Cabrera-Vique, C. (2014). Characterization of fatty acid profile of argan oil and other edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography and discriminant analysis. Journal of Chemistry, 34(7) 867- 873 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/843908.

Saxena, S., Singh, H. N., Agrawal, V. K., & Chaturvedi, S. (2013). Lipid excipients in self emulsifying drug delivery systems. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(22) . 16-22.

Serri, N. A., Kamarudin, A.H., & Abdul-Rahaman, S.N. (2008). Preliminary Studies for Production of Fatty Acids from Hydrolysis of Cooking Palm Oil Using C. rugosa Lipase. Journal of Physical Sciences. 19(1):,79-208.

Shukla, B. J. (2015). Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Improved Oral Delivery of Lipophili Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceurical and Biological Sciences. 7(2), 293-302.

Siddeeg, A., & Xia, W. (2015). Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (CUCUMIS MELO var. TIBISH) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(12), 8172–8179. doi: 10.1007/s13197-015-1889-x

Tropical Plants Database. Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. Available at, Accessed on 19th June 2020.




How to Cite

Romanus CHIJIOKE OMEH, Jude IBEABUCHI ALI, Assumpta ADAOBI OMEH, Lydia UGORJI, & Josephat OGBONNA4. (2023). Extraction characterization and investigation of breadfruit seed oil for possible pharmaceutical application. Journal of Natural Product Research and Applications, 3(01), 4–17. https://doi.org/10.46325/jnpra.v3i01.48